Characterization of nanopowders

Agnieszka Opalińska 1,2Wojciech Dzwolak 1Roman Pielaszek 1Witold Łojkowski 1Tadeusz Chudoba 1Cristina Leonelli 3Hubert Matysiak 2Tomasz Wejrzanowski 2,4Krzysztof J. Kurzydlowski 2Ewa Grzanka 1

1. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Pressure Physics (UNIPRESS), Sokolowska 29/37, Warszawa 01-142, Poland
2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering (InMat), Wołoska 141, Warszawa 02-507, Poland
3. Universita di Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
4. Interdisciplinary Centre for Materials Modelling (ICMM), Woloska 141, Warszawa 02-507, Poland

Abstract

Characterisation of the nanostructure of powders is a challenge frequently not properly met by researchers in this field. The properties measured strongly depend on:

  • size of crystallites,
  • size distribution, and
  • thickness of the surface layers, which may consist of hydroxides or not fully reacted reagents.

As far as crystallite size distribution, we developed an analytical equation that permits to determine two parameters: crystallite size and their dispersion at the same time (d and sigma, where d is particle diameter and sigma is its disorpsion). Broadening of the XRD peaks will lead to a considerable error when used to estimate crystallite sizes and their distribution is not taken not account. Fitting of an analytical expression to the XRD data is a relatively easy procedure that can be followed in any laboratory, providing the XRD data are of sufficient quality. We defined also criteria of quality of XRD patterns for crystallite size and their distribution determination.

As far as the degree of crystallinity of the powders is concerned, we have shown that pycnometric density is an excellent tool to discriminate between ‘good powders” with little non crystalline phases, and poor powders, with a lot of hydroxides on surface or other phases. We postulate that the pair of data (specific surface area, density) should be always requested for characterization of nanopowders.

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  328. X-Ray Characterization of Nanostructured Materials
  329. Generetion and Relaxation of Strain in SiC and GaN under Extreme Pressure
  330. Pressure Effect on Interface Energy, Diffusion and Reactions
  331. Influence of high pressure on the polytype structure of nanocrystalline GaN
  332. Transformation of fractal microstructure of nanocrystalline SiC and diamond in high pressures - Small Angle Scattering Study
  333. Microwave-Hydrothermal Synthesis of Nanostructured Pr-Doped Zirconia Powders
  334. The Strain Induced Cementite Dissolution in Carbon Steels-Experimental Facts and Theoretical Approach
  335. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Low Alloy Steel Subjected to Severe Plastic Deformation
  336. Studies of Ni-P Thin Films by Electroles Deposition Method
  337. Effect of SPD Grain Refinement and Peculiarity of Structure and Mechanical Properties of UFG Ni
  338. Stereology of Nanomaterials
  339. Luminescense of Nanosize ZrO2
  340. Structure, Morphology and Luminescence Properties of Pr-doped Nanocrystalline ZrO2 Obtained by Hydrothermal Method
  341. Nanostructure Formation on the Surface of Railway Tracks and Wheelsets
  342. Targeted Research Project: Metallic, Ceramic and Organic Nanomaterials: Processing - Structure - Properties - Applications
  343. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc Oxide Nanopowders with Microwaves Applications
  344. Microwave Driven Hydrothermal Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanopowders
  345. Indentation Technique for Determination if Mechanical Behavior of Nanomaterials (Bulk and Coatings)
  346. Materials Research in Poland

Presentation: Poster at COST D30 Final Evaluation Meeting, by Agnieszka Opalińska
See On-line Journal of COST D30 Final Evaluation Meeting

Submitted: 2007-10-18 11:09
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44
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