Semipolar (2021) UV LEDs and LDs grown by PAMBE

Marta Sawicka 1,2Grzegorz Muzioł 1Henryk Turski 1Grzegorz Cywiński 1Szymon Grzanka 1,2Ewa Grzanka 1,2Marcin Krysko 1Marcin Siekacz 1,2,3Martin Albrecht 4Oliver Brandt 3Christian Hauswald 3Caroline Cheze 2,3Robert Kucharski 5Czeslaw Skierbiszewski 1,2Piotr Perlin 1,2

1. Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences (UNIPRESS), Sokołowska 29/37, Warsaw 01-142, Poland
2. TopGaN Sp. z o. o., Sokolowska 29/37, Warsaw 01-142, Poland
3. Paul-Drude-Institut (PDI), Hausvogteiplatz 5-7, Berlin 10117, Germany
4. Leibniz Institute for Crystal Growth (IKZ), Max-Born-Str 2, Berlin 12489, Germany
5. AMMONO S.A., Czerwonego Krzyża 2/31, Warsaw 00-377, Poland


The advent of non-c-plane GaN substrates opened up new possibilities for the fabrication of nonpolar and semipolar nitride devices [1]. The majority of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser diodes (LDs) is grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE), but there are few exceptions that include optically pumped nonpolar laser [2] or recently reported semipolar LEDs [3] fabricated by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE).

In this work we report on the efficient LEDs and electrically driven LDs emitting in near-UV range grown by PAMBE on semipolar (2021) ammono-GaN substrates. We present smooth semipolar surface morphologies after growth under metal-rich conditions obtained by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and we confirm the high structural quality of the structures presenting detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

In Fig. 1 we show the high resolution TEM image of the multi-quantum well In0.06Ga0.94N/In0.01Ga0.99N (MQW) structure that has been implemented in the active region of the LED and LD. The QWs are very uniform with sharp interfaces that, along with the efficient n- and p-type doping, was essential to achieve both, electroluminescence and lasing from the semipolar devices. Using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) we found similar Mg and Si concentrations for the (Al,In,Ga)N layers grown on semipolar (2021) GaN substrate in comparison to c-polar (0001) layers grown under the same growth conditions. The electroluminescence of the semipolar LED peaked at 387 nm while the optical output power obtained from nonprocessed wafer structure was 0.3 mW @ 100 mA. We will discuss the detailed electrical LED characteristics and its structural quality.

The semipolar LDs were processed with a ridge waveguide oriented along [1120] direction. The light-current-voltage (L-I-V) characteristics for room-temperature pulse mode operation are shown in Fig. 2(a). The threshold current density is 13.2 kA/cm-2 and the threshold voltage is about 10.8 V. The high resolution laser emission spectra is shown in Fig. 2(b), while the inset shows the magnified part of the spectrum. Laser emission wavelength is 388.2 nm. We observe a very small wavelength difference between the stimulated and spontaneous emission that is attributed to (i) the small electric fields in the semipolar structure and (ii) homogenous QWs and high interface quality in the active region. Further improvements in the LD electrical characteristics is expected for the devices processed with a ridge waveguide along the [1014] direction [4].

Acknowledgements: Authors would like to thank A. Feduniewicz-Żmuda, B. Grzywacz, A. Nowakowska-Siwińska, A. Sarzyńska for help with sample preparation and device processing. This work has been partially supported by the National Science Centre Grant No. 02950, the National Centre for Research and Development Grant No. IT13426, INNOTECH 157829, the European Union within IAPP project SINOPLE grant No. 230765 and European Union funds by the European Social Fund.


[1]  R.M. Farrell, E.C. Young, F. Wu, S.P. DenBaars and J.S Speck, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 27, 024001 (2012).

[2] H. Teisseyre, C. Skierbiszewski, A. Khachapuridze, A. Feduniewicz-Zmuda, M. Siekacz, B. Łucznik, G. Kamler, M. Krysko, T. Suski, P. Perlin, I. Grzegory, and S. Porowski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 081104 (2007).

[3] M. Sawicka, C. Cheze, H. Turski, G. Muziol, S. Grzanka, C. Hauswald, O. Brandt, M. Siekacz, R. Kucharski, T. Remmele, M. Albrecht, M. Krysko, E. Grzanka, T. Sochacki, C. Skierbiszewski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 111104 (2013).

[4] W. G. Scheibenzuber, GaN-Based Laser Diodes Towards Longer Wavelengths and Short Pulses, PhD Thesis, Berlin Heidelberg (2012).

Fig 1: High resolution transmission electron micrograph (HRTEM)  of the semipolar multi-quantum well structure grown by PAMBE that builds the LED and LD active region. Both the surface and interfaces are very smooth. The thickness of the respective layers is indicated in the image, dash lines mark the position of the interfaces.

Fig 2: (a) Light-Current-Voltage characteristics of the semipolar LD with laser stripe along the [1120] direction. (b) Room temperature high resolution spectra of the semipolar laser diode below (pink and violet curves) and above the lasing threshold. Inset shows the magnified spectrum around the lasing wavelength 388.2 nm..


Related papers
  1. Preparation of free-standing GaN substrates from thick GaN layers crystallized by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy on ammonothermally grown GaN seeds
  2. Semipolar and nonpolar AlGaN growth mechanisms under N-rich conditions in PAMBE
  3. Ammonothermal growth of GaN substrates
  4. GaN substrates with variable surface miscut for laser diode applications
  5. Indium incorporation mechanism during InGaN growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
  6. Far field pattern of AlGaN cladding free blue laser diodes grown by PAMBE
  7. Growth and properties of bulk single crystals of selected transparent semiconducting oxides (TSOs): β-Ga2O3, In2O3 and SnO2
  8. Podłoża AMMONO-GaN przyszłością elektroniki półprzewodnikowej
  9. Efficiency „droop” in nitride light emitters
  10. Functionalized cobalt nanoparticles
  11. Surface morphology of InGaN layers
  12. TEM investigation of processed  InGaN based laser grown by PAMBE on bulk GaN substrate
  13. Looking at the real structure of nanocrystals with powder diffraction: the apparent lattice parameter approach
  14. Looking beyond limitations of diffraction methods of structural analysis of nanocrystalline materials
  15. Synthesis of doped ZnO nanopowders in microwave hydrothermal reactors
  16. Characterization of nanopowders
  17. Combining microwave and pressure techniques for hydrothermal synthesis of ZnO and ZrO2 nanopowders doped with a range of metal ions
  18. Luminescence properties of zinc oxide nanopowders doped with Al ions obtained by the hydrothermal and vapour condensation methods.
  19. Blue laser diodes by low temperature plasma assisted MBE
  20. Yttrium-Aluminum Garnet Synthesized in the Medium of Supercritical Fluids
  21. X-ray Diffraction as a Tool of InGaN layer Characterization.
  22. Low temperature plasma assisted MBE growth for nitride optoelectronic devices
  23. Sublimation growth of AlN crystals on {111} TaC seeds
  24. Doping of ZnO nanopowders with Mn, Ni and Cr In an ultrasound and microwave driver hydrothermal reaction
  25. Characterization of nanocrystalline ZrO2 doped with Rare-Earth elements synthesized via High Pressure Hydrothermal Method
  26. Morphology of Al doped Zinc Oxide Obtained using Hydrothermal and Vapour Condensation Methods
  27. Doping of ZnO nanopowders with Mn and Cr in an ultrasound and microwave driven hydrothermal reaction
  28. Dyfraktometryczna analiza mikro- i makro-naprężeń w spiekach i kompozytach otrzymanych pod wysokim ciśnieniem i wysoką temperaturą.
  29. Badania własności termicznych nanokryształów metodami dyfraktometrycznymi
  30. Morphology of Al doped zinc oxide obtained by the vapour condensation method
  31. Morphology of Al-Doped Zinc Oxide Obtained by the Vapour Condensation Methods
  32. Nanocrystalline SiC compacts obtained by sintering of laser synthesized nanopowders under extreme pressures
  33. Sintering of nanopowders under high pressure
  34. Synthesis and properties of GaAs nano-composites
  35. SiC-Zn nanocomposites obtained using high-pressure infiltration technique
  36. Influence of synthesis conditions on the particles size and the morphology of zinc oxide nanopowders
  37. Microstructure of homoepitaxially grown InGaN/GaN, violet light emitting laser diodes.
  38. Anomalous behaviour of the photoluminescence from GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
  39. Built-in electric fields in group III-nitride light emitting quantum structures
  40. Bowing of epitaxial structures grown on bulk GaN substrates
  41. X-ray diffraction studies of thermal properties of bulk- and surface-atoms of nanocrystalline SiC
  42. Powder precursors for nanoceramics: cleaning and compaction
  43. Examination of the atomic Pair Distribution Function (PDF) of SiC nanocrystals by in-situ high pressure diffraction
  44. Investigation of the microstructure of SiC-Zn nanocomposites by microscopic methods: SEM, AFM and TEM
  45. Sythesis of metal-ceramic nanocomposites by high-pressure infiltration
  46. The optimalisation of the GaN and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions on bulk crystals using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
  47. Zinc oxide nanopowders obtained by the microwave-hydrothermal route
  48. Microwave driven hydrothermal synthesis of Pr-doped zirconia nanopowders
  49. Homoepitaxy of GaN-based blue and UV lasers
  50. PT-Phase Diagram of Sn2P2S6 Crystals, Photoluminescence and Fundamental Absorbtion Edge
  51. X-Ray Characterization of Nanostructured Materials
  52. Generetion and Relaxation of Strain in SiC and GaN under Extreme Pressure
  53. Influence of high pressure on the polytype structure of nanocrystalline GaN
  54. Transformation of fractal microstructure of nanocrystalline SiC and diamond in high pressures - Small Angle Scattering Study

Presentation: Oral at 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy - ICCGE-17, General Session 10, by Marta Sawicka
See On-line Journal of 17th International Conference on Crystal Growth and Epitaxy - ICCGE-17

Submitted: 2013-04-15 17:51
Revised:   2013-07-23 17:02