Synthesis of highly biocompatible hydroxyapatite nanopowders

Dariusz Smolen 1Witold Łojkowski 1Tadeusz Chudoba 1Aleksandra E. Kędzierska 1Elżbieta Pietrzykowska 1Wojciech Swieszkowski 2Malgorzata Kolodziejczyk-Mierzynska 3Małgorzata Lewandowska-Szumieł 3

1. Institute of High Pressure Physics, Warsaw 01-142, Poland
2. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering (InMat), Wołoska 141, Warszawa 02-507, Poland
3. Medical University of Warsaw, Department of Histology and Embryology, Center of Biostructure Research, Chalubinskiego 5, Warsaw 02-004, Poland

Abstract

Today, the most common approach for regrowth of bone in case of large bone defects is to use autografts. It is providing the primary factors for effective bone regeneration but this technique requires two or more operations which is increasing risk for patient and is impossible to use in case of large, complicated bone gaps. There is also an emerging market for bioactive ceramics like hydroxyapatite (HAp), which is used in form of paste and granules to fill small bone defects. For large bone gaps regrowing there are still unsolved barriers like: low regrowth rate, poor mechanical properties, high risk of inflammantory and low resorption rate. Therfore the main objectives of the current regeneration medicine projects is to developed the technology for bioactive scaffold with improved, comparing to the state of the art, control of shape, mechanical properties, bioactivity and resorbability. One of the ways to achieve these goal is to produce nonstoichiometric nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite with grain size lower than 10nm and shape close to the natural HAp which will be used as a material for bioactive, mechanically strong scaffolds. Such nanoparticles due to their calcium deficiency and high surface to volume ratio may achieved necessary solubility level and increased osteoblasts adhesion.

The Institute of High Pressure Physics of the Polish Academy of Science (IHPP) is an expert in synthesis of doped nanoparticles with narrow size distribution, at relatively low temperatures by using Microwave Solvothermal Synthesis (MSS) technology. The MSS technology permits synthesis of nanoparticles with precise control of reaction time, temperature and pressure. IHPP and the Faculty of Materials Engineering, Wasrsaw University of Technology, created a joint Center for Biomaterials and started cooperation to developed materials for bone resorable scaffolds.

Thanks to unique MSS technology for nanoparticles synthesis, IHPP is able to synthesize unque HAp nanoparticles using the standard reaction between calcium hydroxide and phophoric acid. The reaction is carried out in water solution in time lower than 5 minutes. The specific surface area is almost 240m2/g the average grain size 6nm (basing on TEM investigations) with shape in the form of plates mimicking natural bone particles. 28 days of degradation test conducted according to norm ISO 10993-14 indicated material solubility equal 20mg/dm3.

Research subject was carried out with the use of CePT infrastructure financed by the European Union – the European Regional development Fund within the Operational Programme “Innovative Economy” for 2007-2013
 

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Presentation: Poster at Nano-Biotechnologia PL, by Dariusz Smolen
See On-line Journal of Nano-Biotechnologia PL

Submitted: 2012-06-25 10:13
Revised:   2012-07-20 12:13