Morphological and surface analytical characterization of chemically pretreated Ti surfaces intended for biomedical applications

Marcin Pisarek 1,2Malgorzata Lewandowska 1Agata Roguska 1,2Krzysztof J. Kurzydlowski 1Maria Janik-Czachor 2

1. Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering (InMat), Wołoska 141, Warszawa 02-507, Poland
2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physical Chemistry, Kasprzaka 44/52, Warszawa 01-224, Poland

Abstract

Titanium is known as a biocompatible metal characterized by biological and corrosion immunity and good mechanical properties, including a high fracture toughness. In variety of environments this metal undergoes “natural” oxidation which determine its resistance to corrosion. It can also be exposed to chemical treatments in acidic or alkaline solutions which “enforces” chemical and morphological changes of Ti surface. Those methods, if well controlled, may increase Ti surface thus making it more biocompatible. However, the morphological and chemical factors responsible for their interactions with biological cells are still not well known.

The aim of this work was to compare surface chemical and morphological changes introduced by commonly used NaOH aq pretreatment with those occurring in a new “piranha” acidic solution. Special care was exercised to identify possible changes which may be decisive for the biocompatibility of the Ti-elements subjected to these surface modifications.

Surface analytical techniques such as AES or XPS combined with Ar+ ion sputtering allowed to investigate in detail the chemical composition of Ti oxide layers. SEM examinations provided morphological characterization of the surface of Ti samples. The results revealed large differences in morphology of Ti surfaces pretreated with different procedures whereas only minor differences in the chemistry of the surfaces were detected.

All tested materials appeared to be biocompatible in vitro. "Piranha" treated samples seem to be a good support for osteoblast-like cells to proliferate and differentiate. Cells seeded on modified titanium surface could synthesize extracellular proteins, especially collagen.

Keywords: biomaterials, surface chemical treatment, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS)

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Presentation: Oral at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007, Symposium D, by Agata Roguska
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007

Submitted: 2007-05-22 02:28
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44
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