Stress - mediated solid phase epitaxial re - growth of a-Si at annealing of Si:Mn

Andrzej Misiuk 1Adam Barcz 1Artur Wnuk 2Jadwiga Bak-Misiuk 3

1. Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland
2. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME), Wólczyńska 133, Warszawa 01-919, Poland
3. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland

Abstract

Ion-beam-induced formation of amorphous silicon (a-Si) and its solid phase epitaxial re-growth (SPER) during annealing of implanted single crystalline silicon (c-Si) have attracted significant interest because of their importance for fabrication of Si devices [1]. SPER of a-Si depends, among others parameters, on processing temperature (HT) and pressure (HP) [2].

The structures prepared by implantation of Cz-Si with some metallic ions and annealed under HP have been reported to indicate interesting magnetic properties, of possible application in spintronics [3 - 5]. The HT - HP treatment of Si implanted with manganese (Si:Mn) affects its microstructure and magnetic ordering in a specific way [3, 5]. This motivated us to perform detailed investigation of the effect of HP applied at annealing of Si:Mn on its properties, related to SPER of a-Si.

Mn+ ions were implanted at room temperature with doses, D = 2x1015 – 1.2x1016 cm-2 and energy, E = 160 keV, into (001) oriented p–type Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si). The Si:Mn samples were processed in Ar atmosphere for up to 10 h at up to 1400 K under HP up to 1.2 GPa. The depth distribution of Mn was investigated by Secondary Ions Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). Photoluminescence (PL) and X-Ray measurements were applied to determine the sample microstructure.

Mn+ implantation produces a-Si near the implanted ions range (Rp = 140 nm), up to about 0.25 mm depth. The PL spectra of as-implanted samples are featureless confirming complete amorphisation of the near – surface layer of Si:Mn.

SPER of a-Si is strongly dependent on implanted dose, on HT, processing time (t) and HP. Processing of the Si:Mn samples (D = 2x1015 cm-2) for t = 1 h at 870 - 1000 K, both under 105 Pa and 1.2 GPa, results in the sharp minimum in Mn concentration at ~ 150 nm depth below the surface. SPER results in the movement of the a-c interface towards the surface. Since the solubility of Mn in c-Si is low, this re-crystallization expels Mn atoms from the re-growth region and the a-c interface moves toward the surface. The excess Mn atoms are accumulated at the a-c interface and so, depending also on the D value, the Mn concentration reach to a point, at which re-crystallization can not push longer excess Mn out of c-Si.

In the case of processing at 1070 – 1170 K, the a-Si is converted in part into polycrystalline material (as confirmed by X-Ray and PL measurements) while manganese silicides (such as Mn4Si7 [6]) are formed.

In Si:Mn prepared by high dose implantation (D ³ 1x1016 cm-2) and processed at ³ 1170 K, the effective out-diffusion of Mn to the Si:Mn surface increases with uniform stress applied; SPER and the Mn distribution are strongly dependent on p and t.

Our results help in understanding the mechanisms of SPER and, in the particular case of Si:Mn, suggest a new route to prepare, by the appropriate HT – HP treatment, the specific Si-Mn materials belonging to the Diluted Magnetic Semiconductor family.

[1] L. Pelaz, L.A. Marguez, J. Barbolla, J. Appl. Phys., 96 (2004) 5947.

[2] A. Misiuk, B. Surma, J. Bak-Misiuk, Solid State Phen., 108-109 (2005) 351.

[3] A. Misiuk, J. Bak-Misiuk, B. Surma, W. Osinniy, M. Szot, T. Story, J. Jagielski, J. Alloys Comp., 423 (2006) 201.

[4] A. Misiuk, L. Chow, A. Barcz, B. Surma, J. Bak-Misiuk, P. Romanowski, W. Osinniy, F. Salman, G. Chai, M. Prujszczyk, A. Trojan, in: High Purity Silicon 9, Eds: C.L. Claeys, R. Falster, M. Watanabe, P. Stallhofer, ISBN 1-56677-504-3, 2006, p. 481.

[5] A. Misiuk, B. Surma, J. Bak-Misiuk, A. Barcz, W. Jung, W. Osinniy, A. Shalimov, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process., 9 (2006) 270.

[6] U. Gottlieb, A. Sulpice, B. Lambert-Andron, O. Laborde, J. Alloys Comp. 361 (2003) 13.

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Presentation: Poster at Joint Fith International Conference on Solid State Crystals & Eighth Polish Conference on Crystal Growth, by Andrzej Misiuk
See On-line Journal of Joint Fith International Conference on Solid State Crystals & Eighth Polish Conference on Crystal Growth

Submitted: 2007-01-09 10:23
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44
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