p-type conducting ZnO: fabrication and characterisation

Eliana Kaminska 1Anna Piotrowska 1Jacek Kossut 3Renata Butkute Witold Daniel Dobrowolski Krystyna Golaszewska 1Adam Barcz 1Rafał Jakieła Elzbieta Dynowska Ewa Przezdziecka 2Dorota Wawer 1

1. Institute of Electron Technology (ITE), al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland
2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland
3. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics and ERATO Semiconductor Spintronics Project, al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland

Abstract

The current high level of research on p-type doping of ZnO is driven by the possibility of important applications such as wide-gap electronics and spintronics, yet high-quality and reproducible p-type ZnO remains a formidable technological challenge.
In this contribution we discuss preparation of p-type ZnO by oxidation of thin films zinc nitride. Nitrogen incorporation is seen as the most prospective way to obtain p-type conductivity. The starting material was grown by rf reactive magnetron sputtering from high purity Zn target, in Ar-N2 plasma. Crucial point during the deposition was to adjust both the N2/Ar ratio and the working pressure so as to deposit Zn3N2 without any metallic Zn inclusions. For oxidation, samples were furnace annealed in O2 flow Quartz and sapphire as well as lattice-matched GaN, ZnO and ZrB2 were used as substrates. The effect of the growth direction - determined by growth conditions - on the structural perfection of the resultant ZnO films as well as on efficiency of nitrogen incorporation was studied. We present results of x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry and optical transmission measurements of the oxidized layers, indicating that formation of ZnO did take place.
We report on the appropriate conditions for the growth of p-type ZnO with Hall effect mobility of 20 cm2/Vs and carrier concentration of 2x1015 cm-3. Further increase of p-type conductivity up to 5x1017 cm-3 with mobility of 5 cm2/Vs was obtained by additional doping the starting material with Cr. We discuss the role of the latter in gettering of hydrogen which, possibly, deactivates the nitrogen acceptors. Finally we address the problem of stability of the films: we found that protection of the surface is necessary in order to prevent p-type conductivity degradation.

Work supported by grants from EC NANOPHOS (contract IST-2001-39112) and from the State Committee for Scientific Research PBZ-KBN-044/P03/2001.

Related papers
  1. (Cd, Mn)Te Crystals for X and Gamma Radiation Detectors - an Alternative Material to CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te. 
  2. Diluted magnetic semiconductors – from bulk crystals to low dimensional structures
  3. Neutron scattering studies of short-period MnTe/ZnTe superlattices: magnetic order, magnon propagation and confinement
  4. X-ray diffraction studies of (Pb,Cd)Te solid solution – possible new material for thermoelectric applications
  5. Hexagonal MnTe with NiAs structure: thermal expansion coefficients and exchange striction
  6. 1D ZnO-based structures obtained by thermal oxidation of ZnTe and ZnTe/Zn nanowires
  7. Physical properties of unique ZnO single crystals from Oława Foundry
  8. Growth of SiC by PVT method with different sources of the cerium impurity, CeO2 or CeSi2
  9. The influence of growth atmosphere on the self-selection of the grains during ZnO crystal growth
  10. MBE growth of GaN nanowires on Si(111) substrates for gas sensor applications 
  11. Electronic and optical properties – As and As+Sb doped ZnO grown by PA-MBE
  12. Grown ZnMgO/ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures on p-type Si(111) by MBE method
  13. Dual-acceptor doped p-ZnO:(As+Sb)/n-GaN heterojunctions grown by PA-MBE as a highly selective UV detector
  14. Low-temperature expansion of metastable Pb1-xCdxTe solid solution
  15. Can we control the process of room temperature ferromagnetic clusters formation in GaMnAs matrix?
  16. Monocrystalline character of ZnMgTe shell in the core-shell ZnTe/ZnMgTe nanowires
  17. Optimization of technology for contact metallization in electronic devices - XRD and EXAFS studies
  18. Structural transformations of GaMnAs layer annealed under enhanced hydrostatic pressure
  19. Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide layers obtained by Atomic Layer Deposition
  20. Zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition - a material for novel 3D electronics
  21. Dimethylzinc and diethylzinc as precursors for monocrystalline zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition
  22. Application of Ti-Al-N MAX-phase for contacts to GaN
  23. Transparent p-type ZnO obtained by Ag doping
  24. Structure of Si:Mn annealed under enhanced stress conditions
  25. Reconstruction of lattice structure of ion-implanted near-surface regions of HgCdTe epitaxial layers
  26. Effect of high pressure annealing on defect structure of GaMnAs
  27. Effect of iron addition on the properties of ZnO obtained by precipitation
  28. Catalytic growth by molecular beam epitaxy and properties of ZnTe-based semiconductor nanowires
  29. Liquid phase growth and characterization of laterally overgrown GaSb epitaxial layers
  30. Photothermal investigations of SiC thermal properties
  31. Characterization of Ir and IrO2 Schottky contacts on n-type 4H-SiC under high temperature stress
  32. Determination of stress in composite engineered substrates for GaN-based RF power devices
  33. Passivation of GaN surface by chemical bath deposition of thin CdS layers
  34. Optimisation of electrochemical sulphur treatment of GaSb and related semiconductors: application to surface passivation of GaSb/In(Al)GaAsSb TPV cells
  35. Effect of stress on structural transformations in GaMnAs
  36. Comparison of various GaSb-based device structures for application in thermophotovoltaic cells
  37. Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopic Study of Mn-Implanted Silicon after Thermal Annealing
  38. Structure and Magnetization of Defect-Associated Sites in Silicon
  39. Stress - mediated solid phase epitaxial re - growth of a-Si at annealing of Si:Mn
  40. The role of radiation defects in HgCdTe epitaxial growth
  41. Optical properties of p-type ZnO:(N, As, Sb)
  42. Optical and magnetooptical properties of the p-type ZnMnO.
  43. Periodic boundary conditions in micromagnetic modeling
  44. Diffusion of Mn in gallium arsenide.
  45. Relationship between condition of deposition and properties of W-Ti-N thin films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering
  46. Crystalline structure and surface morphology of DyxOy films grown on Si
  47. Structural analysis of reactively sputtered W-Ti-N thin films
  48. Phase relationships in annealed Cu-Al-O layers
  49. ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ZnO AND ZnO:Cr CRYSTALS, GROWN BY CVT METHOD
  50. TaSiN, TiSiN and TiWN diffusion barriers for metallization systems to GaN
  51. Transparent Conducting Oxides as Ohmic Contacts for GaSb-based Thermophotovoltaic Cells
  52. NANOCOMPOSITE PHOTONIC SENSORS: FIRST APPROACH BY THE NANOPHOS INITIATIVE
  53. Optical properties of CdTe quantum dots
  54. Electrical Properties of GaN/AlGaN Hetrostructures
  55. Thermally stable Ru-Si-O gate electrode for AlGaN/GaN HEMT
  56. Preparation and characterization of hexagonal MnTe and ZnO layers
  57. Fabrication and characterization of II-VI diluted magnetic p-n junctions
  58. Diffusion barrier properties of reactively sputtered W-Ti-N thin films
  59. Mg diffusion in GaN:Mg grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy MOVPE
  60. Use of element selective methods for characterization of thin films
  61. Diffusion and diffusion induced defects in GaN
  62. Study of Long-Term Stability of Ohmic Contacts to GaN
  63. Problems with cracking of AlxGa1-xN layers
  64. High-pressure phase transition and compressibility of zinc-blende HgZnSe mixed crystals
  65. Structure characterisation of MBE-grown ZnSe:Cr layers
  66. Fabrication of GaSb microlenses by photo and e-beam lithography and dry etching
  67. Effect of deposition conditions and annealing on residual stress of ITO films magnetron sputtered on silica
  68. Luminescent properties of wide bandgap materials at room temperature
  69. Development of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) films for the Bragg reflectors application
  70. Argon as a Pressure-Transmitting Medium, Loading Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) vs Phase Diagram

Presentation: oral at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2004, Symposium F, by Eliana Kaminska
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2004

Submitted: 2004-05-18 16:47
Revised:   2009-06-08 12:55
Google
 
Web science24.com
© 1998-2018 pielaszek research, all rights reserved Powered by the Conference Engine