Gallium nitride surface formation and modification by Mn deposition - photoemission studies with use of synchrotron radiation

Bogdan J. Kowalski 2Iwona A. Kowalik 2Ryszard J. Iwanowski 2Bronislaw A. Orlowski Elżbieta Lusakowska 2Janusz Sadowski 2,4,5Robert L. Johnson 3Izabella Grzegory 1Sylwester Porowski 1

1. Polish Academy of Sciences, High Pressure Research Center (UNIPRESS), Sokolowska 29/37, Warszawa 01-142, Poland
2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland
3. University of Hamburg, Institute for Experimental Physics, Luruper Chausse 149, Hamburg D-22761, Germany
4. University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, Copenhagen DK-2100, Denmark
5. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg S-412 96, Sweden


Gallium nitride (apart from its optoelectronic applications) is a system particularly interesting from the point of view of surface physics research. Its surfaces may reconstruct in various ways depending on formation conditions (surface polarity, preparation method, and presence of impurities). Moreover, doping with transition metals may transform GaN into a ferromagnetic semiconductor. Annealing of Mn/GaN is considered as a technique suitable for fabrication of this material.
In this paper we present the results of photoemission studies of electronic structure of a GaN surface, clean and modified by deposition of manganese. Advantages of two experimental techniques based on application of synchrotron radiation manifest themselves in this report.
Details of electronic band structure of clean (000-1)-(1x1) surface of GaN bulk crystal were studied by means of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The acquired results indicated that some part of the surface corresponds to the GaN (000-1):Ga configuration, covered with additional layer of Ga atoms bound at the "on top" positions above N atoms. However, substantially large regions have the relaxed clean GaN (000-1) configuration with a characteristic, almost dispersionless surface band occurring at the energy of the valence band maximum.
Mn/GaN interface formation on GaN(000-1)-(1x1) surface was investigated by resonant photoemission spectroscopy, as a function of Mn-coverage. A contribution of Mn 3d states to the valence band of the system was derived from photoemission spectra taken for photon energies near to Mn 3p-3d excitation. Interaction between Mn and GaN was also monitored by spectroscopy of Ga 3d core level. The results show that Mn on GaN forms a reactive interface. Moreover, annealing of Mn/GaN at 400oC makes the Mn 3d states distribution similar to that characteristic of Mn built into tetrahedrally coordinated semimagnetic semiconductors. Possible Mn atom environment will be discussed.

Related papers
  1. Critical exponents of dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors (Ga,Mn)N and (Ga,Mn)As
  2. Impact of substrate microstructure on self-induced nucleation and properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted MBE
  3. Indium incorporation mechanism during InGaN growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
  4. Optical properties of GaAs:Mn nanowires
  5. Photoreflectance study of Ga(Bi,As) and (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers grown under tensile and compressive strain
  6. MBE growth, structural, magnetic, and electric properties of (In,Ga)As-(Ga,Mn)As core-shell nanowires
  7. Quaternary (Ga,Mn)BiAs ferromagnetic semiconductor -MBE growth, structural and magnetic properties
  8. Surface charging of crystalline oxides in X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy - examples of LiNbO3 , Lu2SiO5 and LuVO4
  9. Stany Mn 3d w paśmie walencyjnym Ga1-xMnxSb
  10. Influence of substrate on crystallographic quality of AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by MBE
  11. Resonant photoemission study of Sm atoms on ZnO surface
  12. Damage of gallium arsenide created after irradiation by ultra-short VUV laser pulse
  13. X-ray photoemission from CdTe/PbTe/CdTe nanostructure in normal and grazing-incidence modes
  14. Can we control the process of room temperature ferromagnetic clusters formation in GaMnAs matrix?
  15. ZnO and core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers: Characterization and applications
  16. Magnetyczna spektroskopia i spektro-mikroskopia na materiałach spintronicznych
  17. Structural transformations of GaMnAs layer annealed under enhanced hydrostatic pressure
  18. Zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition - a material for novel 3D electronics
  19. Dimethylzinc and diethylzinc as precursors for monocrystalline zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition
  20. Thin films of ZnS and ZnSe by Atomic Layer Deposition for light sensor applications
  21. Effects related to deposition temperature of ZnCoO films grown by Atomic Layer Deposition – uniformity of Co distribution, structural, electric and magnetic properties
  22. Diffusion profiles of transition metals (TM= Co or Mn) in ZnO and GaN incorporated by annealing of thin TM film
  23. ZnO thin films for organic/inorganic heterojunctions
  24. Gd atoms on Si (111) surface – AFM and photoemission study
  25. Electronic structure of Mn atoms in (Ga,Mn)As layers modified by high temperature annealing
  26. Mn 3d electrons in the valence band of Mn/Ge0.9Mn0.1Te- a resonant photoemission study
  27. Effect of high pressure annealing on defect structure of GaMnAs
  28. Wide band-gap II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronic applications
  29. Influence of high temperature annealing on the local atomic structure around Mn atoms and magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As layers
  30. Water absorption by epitaxial LaNiO3-x thin films
  31. Growth anisotropy of GaN single crystals by high pressure and HVPE methods
  32. Catalytic growth by molecular beam epitaxy and properties of ZnTe-based semiconductor nanowires
  33. Recognition of chemical (electrically active) non-homogeneities in thick HVPE-grown GaN layers
  34. Effect of annealing on electrical properties of low temperature ZnO films
  35. Effect of stress on structural transformations in GaMnAs
  36. Tunneling Anisotropic Magnetoresistance effect in p+-(Ga,Mn)As/n+-GaAs Esaki diode structure.
  37. Formation of epitaxial MnSb and MnBi layers on GaMnAs
  38. Magnetotransport properties of ultrathin GaMnAs layers
  39. Mass flow and reaction analysis of the growth of GaN layers by HVPE
  40. Giant planar Hall effect in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As layers
  41. Magneto-conductance through nanoconstriction in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As film
  42. Investigation of epitaxial LaNiO3-x thin films by High-Energy XPS
  43. GaN(0001) surface Fe atoms doped
  44. Microstructure of homoepitaxially grown InGaN/GaN, violet light emitting laser diodes.
  45. Anomalous behaviour of the photoluminescence from GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
  46. Growth and characterization of thin films of ZnO by Atomic Layer Epitaxy
  47. Influence of n-type doping on light emission properties of GaN layers and GaN-based quantum well structures
  48. Built-in electric fields in group III-nitride light emitting quantum structures
  49. Bowing of epitaxial structures grown on bulk GaN substrates
  50. Interaction of Mn and Ti atoms with GaN surface - a resonant photoemission study
  51. Gallium nitride single crystals grown under high pressure for optoelectronics applications
  52. Defects in GaMnAs - influence of annealing and growth conditions
  53. The optimalisation of the GaN and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions on bulk crystals using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
  54. Evidence of threading and misfit dislocations in partially relaxed InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures
  55. Photoemission study of the LT-GaAs
  56. Cathodoluminescence study of n-type doped GaN epilayers and GaN/InGaN quantum well structures
  57. Compensation mechanisms in magnesium doped GaN
  58. Structure characterisation of MBE-grown ZnSe:Cr layers
  59. Optical Detection of 2DEG in GaN/AlGaN Structures - High Magnetic Field Studies
  60. Lattice parameters changes of GaMnAs layers induced by annealing
  61. Nanostructure of laser annealed Ge-implanted near-surface Si layers
  62. Defect structure of Sn-implanted Si crystal annealed by nanosecond laser pulse
  63. Mn doped ZnTe (110) (1x1) surface in Resonant Photoemission study
  64. Differential Reflectivity and Photoemission study of ZnTe and CdTe(110) surface

Presentation: invited oral at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2003, Symposium B, by Bogdan J. Kowalski
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2003

Submitted: 2003-05-24 20:15
Revised:   2009-06-08 12:55
© 1998-2018 pielaszek research, all rights reserved Powered by the Conference Engine