Gd atoms on Si (111) surface – AFM and photoemission study

Bronislaw A. Orlowski 1Bogdan J. Kowalski 1Elżbieta Guziewicz 1Elżbieta Lusakowska 1Victor Osinniy 1Iwona A. Kowalik 1Mieczyslaw A. Pietrzyk 1Elzbieta Nossarzewska-Orlowska 2Andrzej Bukowski 2Robert L. Johnson 3

1. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland
2. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Silicon Department (ITME), Wólczynska 133, Warszawa 01-919, Poland
3. University of Hamburg, Institute for Experimental Physics, Luruper Chausse 149, Hamburg D-22761, Germany

Abstract

The vacuum deposition of Gd atoms on Si(111) surface leads to the appearance of some unexpected effects. The Gd atom as a next after Eu with configuration Eu 4f76s2 it has configuration Gd 4f75d16s2 of electrons. Lightly bound Gd 5d1 electron contributes as a donor and Gd atom appears in most chemical compounds as Gd3+ ion. The atom is very reactive and in reaction with Si gives a sparking effects. Deposition of Gd atoms by evaporation in UHV on Si(111) leads to creation of craters on Si(111) surface in interface region. Negative magnetoresistance giant effect was observed in low temperatures below 80 K for GdX Si1-X silicide as an effect of RKKY interaction between isolated Gd ions and free carriers.

The paper presents study of Gd atoms deposited on Si(111) surface by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Fano-type resonant photoemission. The layers of thickness 2, 20, 150 and 3000A were deposited in UHV conditions. The remarkably deep craters were observed on silicon surface under deposited 150A of Gd layer. The application of synchrotron radiation in the region of energy hv corresponding to the Gd 4d-4f transition (130 – 170eV) gave the possibility to measure Fano-type resonant photoemission spectra. The spectra of Si valence band with contribution of Gd 4f and 6s electrons were studied for layer of Gd with 2A thick deposited on Si(111) clean surface. The photoemission study gave the curve of the Fano resonance shape with resonance for hv=151,8eV and antiresonance for hv=146,8eV. The Gd 4f localized electrons gave the contribution to the valence band density of states located 9,8 eV below the valence band edge.

 

Related papers
  1. Impact of substrate microstructure on self-induced nucleation and properties of GaN nanowires grown by plasma-assisted MBE
  2. Electronic and optical properties – As and As+Sb doped ZnO grown by PA-MBE
  3. Growth of zinc oxide and dielectric films using Atomic Layer Deposition method from organic precursors
  4. Grown ZnMgO/ZnO/ZnMgO heterostructures on p-type Si(111) by MBE method
  5. Dual-acceptor doped p-ZnO:(As+Sb)/n-GaN heterojunctions grown by PA-MBE as a highly selective UV detector
  6. Stany Mn 3d w paśmie walencyjnym Ga1-xMnxSb
  7. Influence of substrate on crystallographic quality of AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures grown by MBE
  8. Rezonansowe badania fotoemisyjne ferromagnetycznych warstw ZnCoO
  9. Resonant photoemission study of Sm atoms on ZnO surface
  10. Damage of gallium arsenide created after irradiation by ultra-short VUV laser pulse
  11. X-ray photoemission from CdTe/PbTe/CdTe nanostructure in normal and grazing-incidence modes
  12. Mangan w warstwach ZnMnO hodowanych metodą osadzania warstw atomowych
  13. ZnO and core/shell ZnO/ZnS nanofibers: Characterization and applications
  14. Magnetyczna spektroskopia i spektro-mikroskopia na materiałach spintronicznych
  15. Lokalne otoczenie atomów kobaltu w cienkich warstwach ZnCoO
  16. Contactless electroreflectance of ZnSe layers grown by atomic layer epitaxy
  17. Electrical and optical properties of zinc oxide layers obtained by Atomic Layer Deposition
  18. Zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition - a material for novel 3D electronics
  19. Dimethylzinc and diethylzinc as precursors for monocrystalline zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition
  20. Thin films of ZnS and ZnSe by Atomic Layer Deposition for light sensor applications
  21. Photovoltaic cells based on nickel phthalocyanine and zinc oxide formed by atomic layer deposition
  22. Effects related to deposition temperature of ZnCoO films grown by Atomic Layer Deposition – uniformity of Co distribution, structural, electric and magnetic properties
  23. Diffusion profiles of transition metals (TM= Co or Mn) in ZnO and GaN incorporated by annealing of thin TM film
  24. ZnO thin films for organic/inorganic heterojunctions
  25. Mn 3d electrons in the valence band of Mn/Ge0.9Mn0.1Te- a resonant photoemission study
  26. Effect of high pressure annealing on defect structure of GaMnAs
  27. Wide band-gap II-VI semiconductors for optoelectronic applications
  28. Influence of high temperature annealing on the local atomic structure around Mn atoms and magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As layers
  29. Water absorption by epitaxial LaNiO3-x thin films
  30. Low temperature ZnMnO by ALD
  31. ZnMnO Films grown by Atomic Layer Deposition with uniform Mn distribution
  32. Effect of annealing on electrical properties of low temperature ZnO films
  33. Ferromagnetism in ZnO:Mn thin films deposited by PEMOCVD
  34. Ferromagnetic (Eu,Gd)Te/PbTe semiconductor heterostructures
  35. Magnetization study of interlayer exchange in semiconductor EuS-PbS ferromagnetic wedge multilayers
  36. Investigation of epitaxial LaNiO3-x thin films by High-Energy XPS
  37. GaN(0001) surface Fe atoms doped
  38. Structural and optical characterization of epitaxial layers of CdTe/PbTe grown on BaF2 (111) substrates
  39. Growth and characterization of thin films of ZnO by Atomic Layer Epitaxy
  40. Influence of n-type doping on light emission properties of GaN layers and GaN-based quantum well structures
  41. Interaction of Mn and Ti atoms with GaN surface - a resonant photoemission study
  42. Evidence of threading and misfit dislocations in partially relaxed InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures
  43. Cathodoluminescence study of n-type doped GaN epilayers and GaN/InGaN quantum well structures
  44. Structure characterisation of MBE-grown ZnSe:Cr layers
  45. Gallium nitride surface formation and modification by Mn deposition - photoemission studies with use of synchrotron radiation
  46. Nanostructure of laser annealed Ge-implanted near-surface Si layers
  47. Defect structure of Sn-implanted Si crystal annealed by nanosecond laser pulse
  48. Mn doped ZnTe (110) (1x1) surface in Resonant Photoemission study
  49. Differential Reflectivity and Photoemission study of ZnTe and CdTe(110) surface

Presentation: Poster at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007, Symposium I, by Bronislaw A. Orlowski
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2007

Submitted: 2007-05-21 16:41
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:44