Surface morphology of InGaN layers

Robert Czernecki 1,3Mike Leszczynski 1,3Jaroslaw Domagala 2Stanisław Krukowski 1Marcin Krysko 1Piotr Perlin 1Paweł Prystawko Tadeusz Suski 1Grzegorz Targowski 1

1. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Pressure Physics (UNIPRESS), Sokolowska 29/37, Warszawa 01-142, Poland
2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics, al. Lotników 32/46, Warszawa 02-668, Poland
3. TopGaN Sp. z o. o., Sokolowska 29/37, Warsaw 01-142, Poland

Abstract

The aim of this work was to give new experimental information on how the growth conditions in metalorganic chemical vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) influence the morphology and microstructure of InGaN layers in order to find optimum growth conditions of light emitting diodes and laser diodes. 

InGaN (In content up to 25%) and GaN layers (up to 30 nm) grown   on GaN bulk substrates (with ultra-low dislocation density) were examined using the atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) in order to learn about the atomic step morphology and microstructure influenced by the substrate misorientation (up to 2 degrees with respect to c-axis), flow of indium, of hydrogen and by growth temperatures. Concerning the step morphology, the following observations were made:

i)      at low growth temperatures, when N2 is used as a carrier gas, GaN layers contain pinholes,

ii)     the pinholes disappear when hydrogen is added to the carrier gas and then the step-flow-like morphology of the surface is observed (Fig. 1),

iii)  when InGaN layers are grown using N2 carrier gas, no pinholes were observed, but the steps become jaggy,

iv)   when adding hydrogen, the steps become linear, but the incorporation of indium is much smaller, as observed in previous papers.

The explanation of the experimental results is proposed based on higher oxygen incorporation (without hydrogen in the carrier gas) at low temperatures causing jaggy steps and pinholes, however, in all cases the oxygen content was below the detection limit in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS).

            Concerning microstructure, the following new data were obtained:

i) the substrate misorientation is accompanied by smaller indium incorporation into InGaN layers caused by a smaller step velocity in the step-flow growth mode (Fig. 2).

ii) This phenomenon gives rise to an additional surface roughening as the length of the terraces is not uniform.

            iii) the indium content increases with the layer thickness. 

 

Related papers
  1. GaN/AlN junctions - density functional study
  2. Density Functional Theory (DFT) study of GaN(0001) surface in ammonia rich conditions - influence of doping type
  3. Semipolar and nonpolar AlGaN growth mechanisms under N-rich conditions in PAMBE
  4. Defect distribution along needle-shaped PrVO4 single crystals grown by the slow-cooling method
  5. An influence of parallel electric field on the dispersion relation of graphene – a new route to Dirac logics
  6. Drift-diffusion simulations of gallium nitride based heterostructures
  7. Absorption and emission spectra of InN/GaN superlattice structures by DFT methods
  8. Absorption and emission spectra of AlN/GaN superlattice structures by DFT methods
  9. Bulk GaAs growth by Contactless Liquid Phase Electroepitaxy
  10. Adsorption of ammonia on hydrogen covered GaN(0001) surface – Density Functional Theory (DFT) study
  11. Adsorption of gallium on GaN(0001) surface in ammonia rich conditions - Density Functional Theory (DFT) study
  12. Density Functional Theory (DFT) study of hydrogen on GaN (0001) surface
  13. Surface structure and diffusion of Si and C adatoms on bare SiC(0001) and SiC(0001) surfaces- density functional theory studies
  14. GaN substrates with variable surface miscut for laser diode applications
  15. Semipolar (2021) UV LEDs and LDs grown by PAMBE
  16. Far field pattern of AlGaN cladding free blue laser diodes grown by PAMBE
  17. Photoreflectance study of Ga(Bi,As) and (Ga,Mn)As epitaxial layers grown under tensile and compressive strain
  18. First-principles calculations of structural and electronic properties of GaN(0001)/Ga interface
  19. A density functional  theory study of the Zn, O, O2, and H2O adsorption on the polar ZnO(0001) and ZnO(000-1) surfaces
  20. MBE growth, structural, magnetic, and electric properties of (In,Ga)As-(Ga,Mn)As core-shell nanowires
  21. Quaternary (Ga,Mn)BiAs ferromagnetic semiconductor -MBE growth, structural and magnetic properties
  22. Multicolor laser diode arrays for medical applications
  23. X-ray measurements of type II InAs/GaSb superlattice in a wide angular range using the P08 beamline at PETRAIII
  24. Investigation of strain and lattice parameters distribution in epitaxial laterally overgrown InGaN/GaN structures 
  25. Monocrystalline character of ZnMgTe shell in the core-shell ZnTe/ZnMgTe nanowires
  26. Efficiency „droop” in nitride light emitters
  27. Nitrides lasers after BluRay
  28. Inhomogeneities of InGaN/GaN MOVPE multi quantum wells grown with two temperatures process studied by transmission electron microscopy.
  29. Zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition - a material for novel 3D electronics
  30. Dimethylzinc and diethylzinc as precursors for monocrystalline zinc oxide grown by Atomic Layer Deposition
  31. Indium segregation in Al1-xInxN investigated by photoluminescence under hydrostatic pressure
  32. In-segregation induced anomalous behavior of band gap and its pressure coefficient in InAlN and InGaN. Theory and Experiment
  33. Polymer film-coated high electron mobility transistors, based on GaN heterostructures, as sensors for some benzene derivatives
  34. Structure of Si:Mn annealed under enhanced stress conditions
  35. Carrier recombination under one-photon and two-photon excitation in GaN epilayers
  36. Effect of high pressure annealing on defect structure of GaMnAs
  37. Influence of high temperature annealing on the local atomic structure around Mn atoms and magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As layers
  38. Catalytic growth by molecular beam epitaxy and properties of ZnTe-based semiconductor nanowires
  39. Modelling of the growth of nitrides in ammonia rich environment
  40. Transport properties on nitrogen at high pressure and temperature: viscosity – MD study.
  41. Adsorption processes during growth of GaN by HVPE
  42. Blue laser diodes manufacturing in Poland
  43. X-ray Diffraction as a Tool of InGaN layer Characterization.
  44. Structural inhomogenities in GdCa4O(BO3)3 single crystals
  45. Liquid phase growth and characterization of laterally overgrown GaSb epitaxial layers
  46. Distribution of strain in laterally overgrown GaAs layers determined by x-ray diffraction
  47. Determination of stress in composite engineered substrates for GaN-based RF power devices
  48. High-resolution photoinduced transient spectroscopy of defect centers in Mg-doped GaN
  49. Effect of stress on structural transformations in GaMnAs
  50. Rietveld refinement for polycrystalline indium nitride
  51. Mass flow and reaction analysis of the growth of GaN layers by HVPE
  52. Localized donor states resonant with the conduction band in InN and GaN
  53. PLASTIC PROPERTIES OF GaN AND Al2O3 CRYSTAL: FEM-SIMULATION OF NANOINDENTATION CONFIRMED BY HIGH-RESOLUTION MICROSCOPY
  54. Microstructure of homoepitaxially grown InGaN/GaN, violet light emitting laser diodes.
  55. Modeling of elastic, piezoelectric and optical properties of vertically correlated GaN/AlN quantum dots
  56. Growth and characterization of thin films of ZnO by Atomic Layer Epitaxy
  57. Built-in electric fields in group III-nitride light emitting quantum structures
  58. Bowing of epitaxial structures grown on bulk GaN substrates
  59. Defects in GaMnAs - influence of annealing and growth conditions
  60. The optimalisation of the GaN and GaN/AlGaN heterojunctions on bulk crystals using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
  61. Surprisingly low built-in electric fields in quaternary InAlGaN heterostructures
  62. High-pressure phase transition and compressibility of zinc-blende HgZnSe mixed crystals
  63. Optical Detection of 2DEG in GaN/AlGaN Structures - High Magnetic Field Studies
  64. Lattice parameters changes of GaMnAs layers induced by annealing
  65. Homoepitaxy of GaN-based blue and UV lasers
  66. PT-Phase Diagram of Sn2P2S6 Crystals, Photoluminescence and Fundamental Absorbtion Edge

Presentation: Poster at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2009, Symposium C, by Mike Leszczynski
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2009

Submitted: 2009-05-25 15:20
Revised:   2009-06-07 00:48