Synthesis and studies on LiMn2O4/Carbon nanocomposites as a cathode materials for lithium ion batteries

Monika Michalska 1Magdalena Aksienionek 1Dominika Ziółkowska 3Bartosz Hamankiewicz 2Ludwika Lipińska 1Ryszard Diduszko 1Andrzej Czerwiński 2Krzysztof P. Korona 3Maria Kamińska 3

1. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME), Wólczyńska, Warsaw 01-919, Poland
2. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 1, Warszawa 02-093, Poland
3. Warsaw University, Institute of Experimental Physics (IEP UW), Hoża 69, Warszawa 00-681, Poland

Abstract

Lithium based material such as lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) of spinel structure is very promising as a cathode material for secondary Li-ion batteries. This compound has several advantages like: low cost and easy preparation, non-toxicity, high discharge potential (4V vs. lithium metal), a satisfactory capacity, high-energy density, low self-discharge and high thermal stability. In spite of these advantages, LiMn2O4 suffers from a capacity fading during charge-discharge cycles, which limits the application in commercial lithium-ion batteries. To reduce this undesired phenomenon many strategies have been applied, as described in our earlier works [1, 2]. Another, less serious drawback of lithium manganese oxide is its modest electronic conductivity. There are several ways of enhance it: i) by doping with high valence ions, ii) introducing metal particles or conducting polymers onto LiMn2O4 internal surfaces and iii) the most popular – mixing as-synthesized material with carbon species.

In our studies we used various forms of carbon in order to prepare LiMn2O4 composites of good electrochemical performance and electronic conductivity.

In this work we prepared series of LiMn2O4/C composites. Firstly, using a modified sol-gel method we obtained xerogels of LiMn2O4 from lithium and manganese salts and citric acid as a main chelating agent. The gels were dried at 150ºC and ground in an agate mortar. Then they were heated at 450 – 700ºC for a few hours in air, resulting in pure lithium manganese oxide nanocrystalline powders. In the second step we prepared LiMn2O4/C composite using different carbon sources: graphene flakes and acetylene black. LiMn2O4 powders and carbon species were either blended in an agate mortar or ball-milled, next pelletized in die set under high pressure.

The crystal structures of all samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The particle size and morphology were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Impedance spectroscopy (IS) was used to determine the electrical conductivity vs. temperature. Moreover, the galvanostatic charge-discharge tests were carried out to examine the electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4/Carbon composites.

[1] M. Michalska, L. Lipińska, M. Mirkowska, M. Aksienionek, R. Diduszko, M. Wasiucionek: Nanocrystalline lithium-manganese oxide spinels for Li- ion batteries – sol-gel synthesis and characterization of their structure and selected physical properties, Solid State Ionics 188 (2011) 160–164.

[2] Monika Michalska, Ludwika Lipińska, Ryszard Diduszko, Marta Mazurkiewicz, Artur Małolepszy, Leszek Stobiński, Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski: Chemical syntheses of nanocrystalline lithium manganese oxide spinel, Physica Status Solidi C 8, No. 7–8, 2538–2541 (2011) / DOI 10.1002/pssc.201001195.

 

Related papers
  1. Kinetic studies of 4-chlorophenol adsorption on the reduced graphene oxides  
  2. The influence of CeO2 on electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4.
  3. Novel synthesis of olivine lithium metal phosphates LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni, Co) - analysis and studies.
  4. LiMn2O4/graphene oxide as a cathode material for lithium ion battery
  5. Li4Ti5O12/CNT as an anode material for LiBs - structural, morphological and electrochemical studies
  6. From the mine to the tops: Graphene oxide – the mysterious derivative of flake graphene. Properties and applications
  7. Synthesis of nano-Li4Ti5O12 decorated by silver nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries
  8. Structural and electrochemical studies on LiMn2O4 cathode material for LIBs coated with ceramic oxides
  9. (Cd, Mn)Te Crystals for X and Gamma Radiation Detectors - an Alternative Material to CdTe and (Cd,Zn)Te. 
  10. Growth and properties of inclined GaN nanowires on Si(001) substrates by PAMBE
  11. Safe nanomaterials of spinel structure for lithium-ion secondary batteries 
  12. Optical Characterisation of Bulk ZnO Crystals Grown by CVT
  13. Physical properties of unique ZnO single crystals from Oława Foundry
  14. Electronic structure of nanocrystals YF3­­: RE
  15. Czochralski growth and characterization of MgAl2O4 single crystals
  16. Electronic structure of nanocrystals YF3­­: RE
  17. NANONET Foundation
  18. Impact of internal electric fields for GaInN/GaN quantum wells in light emitting diodes
  19. NANONET Foundation
  20. Materials for lithium ion batteries
  21. Fundacja Wspierania Nanonauk i Nanotechnologii NANONET
  22. Prezentacja Fundacji NANONET
  23. X-ray Absorption Fine Structure study of nickel grains embedded in the carbonaceous films
  24. Growth and microstructure of ZnO – Bi2O3 eutectic
  25. Synthesis by sol-gel method of nanocrystalline compounds within Y2O3(Nd2O3)–Al2O3 system for optical applications
  26. Self-organized microstructure of TiO2-MnO
  27. Self- organized eutectic microstructures for photonic crystals and metamaterials
  28. Growth and characterization of Nd, Yb – Yttrium oxide nanopowders obtained by sol-gel method
  29. Initial Stage of SiC Crystal Growth by PVT Method
  30. On the solubility of Nd3+ in Y3Al5O12
  31. Optical properties of p-type ZnO:(N, As, Sb)
  32. Some electrochemical properties of laccase immobilised on the Au, IrOx, or C60-Pd polymer electrode supports
  33. Development of microstructure and mechanical properties in nickel deformed by hydrostatic extrusion
  34. Anomalous behaviour of the photoluminescence from GaN/AlGaN quantum wells
  35. Nano SiC doped MgB2 bulk superconductor with Tc over 42 K by high gas pressure annealing
  36. Recombination Dynamics in GaN/AlGaN Low Dimensional Structures Obtained by SiH4 Treatment
  37. Microstructure of Fe3O4 film grown on Si(100) substrate, investigated by TEM and X-ray methods

Presentation: Poster at Warsaw and Karlsruhe Nanotechnology Day, by Monika Michalska
See On-line Journal of Warsaw and Karlsruhe Nanotechnology Day

Submitted: 2011-09-02 14:17
Revised:   2011-09-04 21:06