LiMn2O4/graphene oxide as a cathode material for lithium ion battery

Monika Michalska 1Dominika Ziółkowska 2Jacek Jasiński 3Ludwika Lipińska 1

1. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology (ITME), Wólczyńska, Warsaw 01-919, Poland
2. Warsaw University, Institute of Experimental Physics (IEP UW), Hoża 69, Warszawa 00-681, Poland
3. Conn Center for Renewable Energy Research, University of Louisville, Louisville KY 40292, United States

Abstract

Lithium manganese oxide (LMO, LiMn2O4) of spinel structure is very promising as a cathode material for secondary lithium ion batteries. This compound has several advantages like: low cost and easy preparation, non-toxicity, high discharge potential (4V vs. lithium metal), a satisfactory practical capacity (120 mAh/g), high-energy density and low self-discharge. One of the drawbacks of lithium manganese oxide is its modest electronic conductivity. There are several ways of enhance it: i) introducing metal particles onto LiMn2O4 internal surfaces, ii) coating the spinel particles by conducting polymers, iii) the most popular - using carbon either as thin layers or mixing as-synthesized LiMn2O4 with carbon species.

In our studies we used graphene oxide (GO) as a carbon species. The pristine nanocrystalline LiMn2O4 powder was synthesized by modified sol-gel method [1-3]. Graphene oxide was prepared by a modified Hummers method [4,5]. The wet low temperature chemical method was used to modify the LMO grains using graphene oxide.

The structure and morphology of the synthesised powders were characterized by: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrochemical charge-discharge tests were performed in three electrode cells with LiMn2O4/n-GO as working and lithium as a reference and counter electrode. A lithium hexafluorophosphate LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene and dimethyl carbonates (1:1) was used as an electrolyte. The working and counter electrode was detached by Celgard 2400 separator. Every cell was cycled using constant current mode in potential range between 3.5 V and 4.5 V Charge – discharge current rates for LMO/n-GO tests varied from 1 C to 30 C, where 1 C corresponds to current density of 148 mA/g.

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by The National Centre for Research and Development through the research grant PBS1 (contract no. PBS1/A1/4/2012).

References

[1] B. Hamankiewicz, M. Michalska, M. Krajewski, D. Ziolkowska, L. Lipińska, M. Kamińska, A. Czerwinski, The effect of electrode thickness on electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4 cathode synthesized by modified sol-gel method, Solid State Ionics 262 (2014) 9-13.

[2] M. Michalska, L. Lipińska, M. Mirkowska, M. Aksienionek, R. Diduszko, M. Wasiucionek, Solid State Ionics 188 (2011) 160.

[3] Monika Michalska, Ludwika Lipińska, Ryszard Diduszko, Marta Mazurkiewicz, Artur Małolepszy, Leszek Stobinski, Krzysztof J. Kurzydłowski, Physica Status Solidi C 8 No. 7–8 (2011) 2538.

[4]. W. S. Hummers, R. E. Offeman, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 80 (6) (1958) 1339.

[5] Ł Majchrzycki, M. Michalska, M. Walkowiak, Z. Wiliński, L. Lipińska, Polish Journal of Chemical Technology 15 3 (2013) 15.

 

Related papers
  1. Kinetic studies of 4-chlorophenol adsorption on the reduced graphene oxides  
  2. The influence of CeO2 on electrochemical performance of LiMn2O4.
  3. Novel synthesis of olivine lithium metal phosphates LiMPO4 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni, Co) - analysis and studies.
  4. Li4Ti5O12/CNT as an anode material for LiBs - structural, morphological and electrochemical studies
  5. From the mine to the tops: Graphene oxide – the mysterious derivative of flake graphene. Properties and applications
  6. Synthesis of nano-Li4Ti5O12 decorated by silver nanoparticles as an anode material for lithium ion batteries
  7. Structural and electrochemical studies on LiMn2O4 cathode material for LIBs coated with ceramic oxides
  8. Safe nanomaterials of spinel structure for lithium-ion secondary batteries 
  9. Electronic structure of nanocrystals YF3­­: RE
  10. Electronic structure of nanocrystals YF3­­: RE
  11. NANONET Foundation
  12. Synthesis and studies on LiMn2O4/Carbon nanocomposites as a cathode materials for lithium ion batteries
  13. NANONET Foundation
  14. Materials for lithium ion batteries
  15. Fundacja Wspierania Nanonauk i Nanotechnologii NANONET
  16. Prezentacja Fundacji NANONET
  17. Synthesis by sol-gel method of nanocrystalline compounds within Y2O3(Nd2O3)–Al2O3 system for optical applications
  18. Growth and characterization of Nd, Yb – Yttrium oxide nanopowders obtained by sol-gel method
  19. On the solubility of Nd3+ in Y3Al5O12

Presentation: Oral at Nano PL 2014, Symposium A, by Monika Michalska
See On-line Journal of Nano PL 2014

Submitted: 2014-04-20 19:49
Revised:   2014-09-28 20:48