Photonic Crystals

Daniel C. Meisel 1Markus Deubel 2Martin Hermatschweiler 1Kurt Busch 3Wolfpeter Koch 2Georg von Freymann 1Alvaro Blanco 1Christian Enkrich 2Martin Wegener 1,2

1. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, Institut für Nanotechnologie (FZK), Postfach 3640, Karlsruhe 76021, Germany
2. Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institut für Angewandte Physik, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, Karlsruhe 76131, Germany
3. Universität Karlsruhe (TH), Institut für Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, Karlsruhe 76131, Germany


Materials have special optical properties if the refractive index is modulated periodically in space on a wavelength scale. They are of great interest with respect to future photonic devices. The propagation properties of light in such materials are strongly depending on the details of the structure. This corresponds to the complex band structure of the respective dispersion relation.
Present investigations aim at a realization of materials with a so called complete photonic band gap. The fabrication of such structures is still a challenge, therefore different technological approaches are being studied. Corresponding model calculations are expected to predict and understand the optical properties.
Several ways to fabricate and to characterize Photonic Crystals are discussed. Holographic lithography and its crystallographic background is described in more detail. This includes the dependence of the lattice type and the basis element inside the Wigner-Seitz-cell on the configuration of the interfering laser beams. Design freedom and restrictions are outlined. Direct laser writing is discussed, too. The combination of both methods is expected to be particularly useful.
For best results a high refractive index contrast is needed calling for infiltration of the photoresist structures which serve as templates.


Presentation: invited oral at E-MRS Fall Meeting 2003, Symposium F, by Daniel C. Meisel
See On-line Journal of E-MRS Fall Meeting 2003

Submitted: 2003-04-27 20:39
Revised:   2009-06-08 12:55