The potential for ceramic nanocomposites to offer significantly enhanced mechanical properties is generally known since the first work of Niihara published in 1991. However achieving these properties needs carefully done colloidal processing, because ceramic nanopowders are naturally prone to agglomeration. The work presented here is concerned with the processing of zirconia/alumina nanocomposites via aqueous and alumina/silicon carbide nanocomposites via nonaqueous colloidal route. The effect of pH of aqueous alumina and zirconia suspensions on properties of suspension and centrifuged green bodies was studied. A correlation between surface electric charge of grains and agglomerate size, viscosity of suspension and porosity of green compacts was found. In the case of nonaqueous route alumina and silicon carbide suspensions in izo-propanol were investigated. Electrostatic surface charge of grains was changed by addition of chloroacetic acid and determined indirectly by the mass of powder deposited on electrode during electrophoresis. Different behaviour of SiC nanopowder than alumina was observed and mechanism of charge creation is proposed on the base of DLVO theory. The effect of grain charge on preventing agglomeration of the silicon carbide powder is presented on SEM micrographs of sintered nanocomposites.